The History Of Autism
Autism is not a disease…
Autism, Is also known as an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which refers to a broad range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech, and nonverbal communication.
According to the Centers for Disease Control, autism affects an estimated 1 in 54 children in the United States today.
We know that there is not one autism but many subtypes, most influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Because autism is a spectrum disorder, each person with autism has a distinct set of strengths and challenges. How people with autism learn to think and problem-solve can range from highly skilled to severely challenged. Some people with ASD may require significant support in their daily lives, while others may need less support and, in some cases, live entirely independently.
Several factors may influence the development of autism, and it is often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues such as gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, seizures, or sleep disorders, as well as mental health challenges such as anxiety, depression, and attention issues.
Signs of autism usually appear by age 2 or 3... Some associated development delays can appear even earlier, and often, they can be diagnosed as early as 18 months.
Research shows that early intervention leads to positive outcomes later in life for people with autism.
In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association merged four distinct autism diagnoses into one umbrella diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
- autistic disorder,
- childhood dis-integrative disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (P.D.D-NOS),
- and Asperger syndrome.
Autism being a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, adversely affects a child's educational performance. has its characteristics.
The primary characteristics are:
- poorly developed social skills,
- difficulty with expressive and receptive communication, and
- the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors.
Note: Young children who have poorly developed social skills may have inappropriate play skills.
The concept of autism was coined in 1911 by the German psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler to describe a symptom of the most severe cases of schizophrenia, a concept he had also created.
Causes of Autism.
There is no known single cause for autism spectrum disorder, but it is generally accepted that it is caused by abnormalities in brain structure or function. Brain scans show differences in the shape and structure of the brain in children with autism compared to in neurotypical children.
Some genetic disorders that can cause autism or symptoms similar to autism include:
- Rett syndrome
- Fragile X syndrome
- Tuberous sclerosis
- Untreated phenylketonuria
- Obstetric complications: Problems during pregnancy and delivery are a possible cause of ASD. Certain medical conditions or medications taken during pregnancy are also thought to be risk factors for ASD.
- Infections: Many children with ASD born to women who contracted rubella during pregnancy suggest the possibility of infection as a risk factor.
- Toxic exposure: Exposure to toxins, chemicals, and air pollution during pregnancy may affect fetal brain development, leading to ASD.
- Parental age: Some studies indicate that children born to parents (one or both) over the age of 35 may be at a higher risk for ASD.
Several population studies have demonstrated that there is no association between vaccinations and autism. It is recommended that parents adhere to the immunization schedule of children.
Studies have also disproved the earlier theory that ASD resulted from rejection by emotionally cold parents.
(ASD) is also a range of neurodevelopmental disorders predominantly characterized by impaired social functioning and communication disturbances. Symptoms can include
- an intense focus on one item,
- unresponsiveness, lack of understanding of social cues (like the tone of voice or body language),
- repetitive movements, or self-abusive behavior like head-banging.
- The severity of the symptoms varies widely among affected individuals.
Other possible symptoms include:
- learning to speak relatively late,
- not playing interactively with other children,
- avoidance of eye contact, lack of empathy,
- and social withdrawal. Children with ASD who have not developed sufficient language skills may act out, including screaming or crying, to express their needs. It is important to note that people with ASD may vary widely in their level of functioning, and not all people with ASD will experience all of the symptoms listed.
Early symptoms and signs in babies' IQ may vary but can include lack of eye contact or decreased eye contact, being overly focused on one item, and lack of back-and-forth play. Very young children may show early symptoms like loss of interest in social contact and social withdrawal.
Asperger syndrome is the name of a condition that was formerly classified as a separate entity by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association. In the most recent version of this diagnostic guide, Asperger syndrome has been removed as a formal diagnosis; those with the symptoms of what was formerly referred to as Asperger syndrome are now grouped in the category of autism spectrum disorder.
Autism causes and risk factors
The exact cause of autism spectrum disorder is not known, but it is also believed that both genetic and environmental factors are involved.
Other autism symptoms and signs:
- Abnormal Body Posturing or Facial Expressions
- Abnormal Tone of Voice
- Avoidance of Eye Contact or Poor Eye Contact
- Behavioral Disturbances
- Deficits in Language Comprehension
- Delay in Learning to Speak
- Flat or Monotonous Speech
- Inappropriate Social Interaction
- Intense Focus on One Topic
- Lack of Empathy
- Lack of Understanding Social Cues
- Learning Disability or Difficulty
- Not Engaging in Play With Peers
- Preoccupation With Specific Topics
- Problems With Two-Way Conversation
- Repeating Words or Phrases
- Repetitive Movements
- Self-Abusive Behaviors
- Sleep Disturbances
- Social Withdrawal
- Unusual Reactions in Social Settings
- Using Odd Words or Phrases.
Types of Autism
What are the different types of autism?
The latest classification of autism spectrum disorders includes the following conditions:
Asperger’s syndrome: The mildest condition in the autism spectrum featuring high functional and intellectual capabilities.
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS): Children with PDD-NOS have more severe symptoms of autism than Asperger’s.
Autistic disorder: Children with the autistic disorder exhibit classic autism symptoms of an intense level.
Childhood disintegrative disorder: The rarest and most severe end of the autism spectrum. These children may also have seizures.
Types of Autism Medications and Treatments:
What is Autism Medication?
Autism medications are prescribed to treat some of the behavioral symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). At present, there is no medication to cure autism spectrum disorder or relieve all of its symptoms. Behavioral therapies form a crucial pillar of treatment.
Autism medications are prescribed to treat some of the behavioral symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). At present, there is no medication to cure autism spectrum disorder or relieve all of its symptoms.
Autism medications may be useful for managing certain behaviors associated with ASD such as:
4. Inability to focus
5. Anxiety and depression
What is the best medicine for autism?
The only medications approved by FDA for irritability associated with autism spectrum disorder are the two following second-generation antipsychotic class of drugs:
Other medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), stimulants and, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists are prescribed off-label for managing some specific symptoms associated with ASD.
Autism runs in families, so certain combinations of genes may increase a child’s risk.
A child with an older parent has a higher risk of autism.
Pregnant women who are exposed to certain drugs or chemicals, like alcohol or anti-seizure medications, are more likely to have autistic children. Other risk factors include maternal metabolic conditions such as diabetes and obesity.
Research has also linked autism to untreated phenylketonuria (also called PKU, a metabolic disorder caused by the absence of an enzyme) and rubella (German measles).